When we look at Cristiano Ronaldo or Lebron James, we see as much talent as physical preparation and hard work.
Often times when we see these champions we don’ t consider what it took for them to become such incredible athletes.
Between the ’70 and ’80, some of the top representatives of the Russian School of thought have put together 8 fundamentals of building an athlete.
Some of these famous authers are:
Principle of awareness
Athletes must know themselves and understand the changes in their bodies both at a physiological and psychological level.
Principle of general development
In order to become champions, athletes don’ t necessarily need to practice only one sport, quite the contrary.
They should build a solid base on a physical and mental level on which they can do further targeted work depending on the sport they chose.
On a physical level they should work on:
- Mental strength
At a psychological level they can improve:
- Ability to handle stress ( stress management)
- Education level and studies
- Impact on team members
Principle of perseverance
Basically, this means dealing with a progressive overload when training.
It is fundamental to increase the volume and intensity of the work over time.
Athletes start from something simple and then move to something more complex, they do something they are familiar with, then something new.
They will do this progressive work consistently based on their training program.
Principle of repetition
This principle is divided into 3 phases:
- Further their Knowledge: the athlete must understand what exactly they need to learn to master their sport
- Increase Motor skills: they will develop the ability to focus on the movement they need to master
- Develop automatic response: the movement will become automatic and the athlete will no longer focus in order to perform well
Principle of visualization
Athletes are able to visualize the correct movements in order to master a specific sport.
They will do this by observing their coach or watching videos of other professionals.
Principle of specialization
Once the bases are built, each athlete can work on specific programs targeted to their sport.
They can do so in two ways:
- They can practice the sport in the same conditions in which they will compete
- They can execute specific exercises and perfect their skills, strategies and all the aspects of their sport
The only sport in which Russian coaches recommend ” early specialized training” is gymnastics For weightlifting, the recommended age is 10-11, and for athletes who want to compete, they can specialize at the age of 17-18 with top performance between 21-28.
Principle of individualization
Each one of us is different and we all have different roles and positions in sports, therefore, we all have different needs when it comes to motor skills and abilities.
In Russia, the central nervous system has a very important role and these authors believe that the physical capabilities derive directly by the development of the CNS.
Principle of periodization
There are 3 phases in training:
- Physical preparation
Each phase needs different types of training according to different goals, from microcycle to mesocycle to macrocycle.
Physical Preparation for Sports
To become a successful athlete you need to use multiple types of training both in a single session and in a long term period.
- Supertraining (Mel Siff, Y. Verkhoshansky)